I'll answer your last question first. Most word processors have a built in template for a FAX Cover Sheet. There are scads of them in MS-Word, the simplest one of which is "Fax cover sheet (standard format)." But in all cases most contain a table with labels for the things you enter. It's pretty straightforward. A cover sheet really only needs to contain your name and contact information, the name and contact information for the person/department to whom the FAX is being sent, and after that any "special instructions" for the recipient if that's applicable.
One can encrypt a file (which will password protect it) and it is safe to send via e-mail, as only the recipient will be provided with the password, and that is done in an e-mail message that is separate from the one in which the file is being sent, so if one or the other message were intercepted the two pieces necessary for getting at the information are not available.
Many companies, and virtually all medical offices, now have what are called client or patient portals, where you log in via the web and the whole interaction is going on in an encrypted session, so all kinds of sensitive information can be safely exchanged.
I've actually sent things like scans of my driver's license and similar unencrypted in the past because the actual probability of any given email message being intercepted is quite low, but there is definitely a risk involved in doing so, but one I was willing to accept.
I just don't understand why the FAX has not died the death it so justly deserves after all these years.
Brian - Windows 10 Pro, 64-Bit, Version 2004, Build 19041
Always remember that computers are just glorified light bulbs - they rarely fail in continuous use and usually go pop when turned off and on.
~ Technician with the username Computer Bloke, on Technibble.com